Saturday, May 28, 2016

Script to generate iptables' rules

This script generates a file in the format that iptables-restore understands.

After copying and saving this script as in some path, you need to give it the execution bit.
It prints in the stdout, so you just to run it redirecting to the file you want to use. For example:

root@raposa:~# chmod +x path/
root@raposa:~# path/ > /etc/iptables.up.rules
root@raposa:~# /etc/init.d/ restart

Here it is, the complete script:
## By Dr Beco 2016-05-26  
 echo '#Generated by Dr Beco at '`date`  
 echo '*filter'  
 ## 1. Delete all existing rules  
 ##iptables -F  
 ## 2. Set default chain policies  
 echo ':INPUT DROP [0:0]'  
 echo ':FORWARD DROP [0:0]'  
 echo ':OUTPUT DROP [0:0]'  
 ##------------------------ Input traffic  
 ## HTTPS can communicate back  
 echo '-A INPUT -i wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 443 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 echo '-A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 443 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 ## HTTP can communicate back  
 echo '-A INPUT -i wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 80 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 echo '-A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 80 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 ## HTTP allow incomming: accepts new connections from outside (HTTP server)  
 #echo '-A INPUT -i wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 80 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 #echo '-A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 80 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 ## PING from inside: get back pong  
 echo '-A INPUT -p icmp -m icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT'  
 ## PING from outside: allow a ping in (server)  
 #echo '-A INPUT -p icmp -m icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT'  
 ## localhost accepts traffic comming from local  
 echo '-A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT'  
 ## DNS allow outbound: we can get back the IP of a domain  
 echo '-A INPUT -i wlan0 -p udp -m udp --sport 53 -j ACCEPT'  
 echo '-A INPUT -i eth0 -p udp -m udp --sport 53 -j ACCEPT'  
 ## SSH allow incomming: accepts new connections from outside (SSH server)  
 #echo '-A INPUT -i wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 22 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 #echo '-A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 22 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 ## SSH communicates back to the world  
 echo '-A INPUT -i wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 22 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 echo '-A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 22 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 ## FTP accepts new connections from outside (FTP server)  
 #echo '-A INPUT -i wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 21 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 #echo '-A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 21 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 ## NTP server, we get back the time (we are client)  
 echo '-A INPUT -p udp -m udp --sport 123 -j ACCEPT'  
 ## Allow bittorent incomming client request (server)  
 #echo '-A INPUT -i wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 6881:8881 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 #echo '-A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 6881:8881 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 #echo '-A INPUT -i wlan0 -p udp -m udp --dport 7881 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 #echo '-A INPUT -i eth0 -p udp -m udp --dport 7881 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 ## Allow bittorent incomming client request (client)  
 #echo '-A INPUT -i wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 6881:8881 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 #echo '-A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 6881:8881 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 #echo '-A INPUT -i wlan0 -p udp -m udp --sport 7881 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 #echo '-A INPUT -i eth0 -p udp -m udp --sport 7881 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 ##------------------------ Output traffic  
 ## HTTPS can ask for new connections to the world  
 echo '-A OUTPUT -o wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 443 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 echo '-A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 443 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 ## HTTP can ask for new connections to the world  
 echo '-A OUTPUT -o wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 80 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 echo '-A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 80 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 ## HTTP allow incomming: we answer back connections (HTTP server)  
 #echo '-A OUTPUT -o wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 80 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 #echo '-A OUTPUT -eth0 wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 80 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 ## PING from inside: send ping  
 echo '-A OUTPUT -p icmp -m icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT'  
 ## PING from outside: give back a pong (server)  
 #echo '-A OUTPUT -p icmp -m icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT'  
 ## localhost can send traffic to local  
 echo '-A OUTPUT -o lo -j ACCEPT'  
 ## DNS allow outbound: we can ask the IP of a domain  
 echo '-A OUTPUT -o wlan0 -p udp -m udp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT'  
 echo '-A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p udp -m udp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT'  
 ## SSH allow incomming: answer back connections from outside (SSH server)  
 #echo '-A OUTPUT -o wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 22 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 #echo '-A OUTPUT -eth0 wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 22 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 ## SSH we can ask for new connections to the world  
 echo '-A OUTPUT -o wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 22 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 echo '-A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 22 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 ## FTP server will answer back (FTP server)  
 #echo '-A OUTPUT -o wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 21 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 #echo '-A OUTPUT -eth0 wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 21 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 ## NTP server, we can ask the time (we are client)  
 echo '-A OUTPUT -p udp -m udp --dport 123 -j ACCEPT'  
 ## Allow bittorent outgoing client request (server)  
 #echo '-A OUTPUT -o wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 6881:8881 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 #echo '-A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 6881:8881 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 #echo '-A OUTPUT -o wlan0 -p udp -m udp --sport 7881 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 #echo '-A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p udp -m udp --sport 7881 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 ## Allow bittorent outgoing client request (client)  
 #echo '-A OUTPUT -o wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 6881:8881 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 #echo '-A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 6881:8881 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 #echo '-A OUTPUT -o wlan0 -p udp -m udp --dport 7881 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 #echo '-A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p udp -m udp --dport 7881 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT'  
 echo 'COMMIT'  
 echo '#Done '`date`  

Happy hacking.

iptables - minimum setup

This is really all a home user need:

  • HTTP / HTTPS (to use your browser)
  • PING (to outside only)
  • localhost needs to be able to communicate
  • DNS (domain name server - to understand ip/domain)
  • NTP (to update the clock)
  • Optional: SSH (port 22) only to outside.

#Generated by Dr Beco at Sat May 28 00:12:52 BRT 2016       
:INPUT DROP [0:0]                                                     
:FORWARD DROP [0:0]                                                     
:OUTPUT DROP [0:0]                                                                 
-A INPUT -i wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 443 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 443 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT  
-A INPUT -i wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 80 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT  
-A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 80 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT   
-A INPUT -p icmp -m icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT                          
-A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -i wlan0 -p udp -m udp --sport 53 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -i eth0 -p udp -m udp --sport 53 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -i wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 22 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --sport 22 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -p udp -m udp --sport 123 -j ACCEPT
-A OUTPUT -o wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 443 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT 

-A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 443 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT  
-A OUTPUT -o wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 80 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
-A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 80 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
-A OUTPUT -p icmp -m icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT
-A OUTPUT -o wlan0 -p udp -m udp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT
-A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p udp -m udp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT
-A OUTPUT -o wlan0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 22 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT  

-A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 22 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT   
-A OUTPUT -p udp -m udp --dport 123 -j ACCEPT
#Done Sat May 28 00:12:52 BRT 2016

Saturday, April 2, 2016

Special English - 1500 Basic Words

a: ad. one; any; each (var. an).

able: v. having the power to do something.

about: ad. almost ("about half"); of or having a relation to ("We talk about the weather.").

above: ad. at a higher place.

accept: v. to agree to receive.

accident: n. something that happens by chance or mistake; an unplanned event.

accuse: v. to say a person is responsible for an act or crime; to make a statement against someone.

across: ad. from side to side; to the other side.

activist: n. one who seeks change through action.

actor: n. someone acting in a play or show.

act: v. to do something.

add: v. to put (something) with another to make it larger; to say more.

administration: n. the executive part of a government, usually headed by a president or prime minister.

admit: v. to accept ("admitted to the United Nations"); to express one's guilt or responsibility ("He admitted that what he did was wrong.").

adult: n. a grown person.

advise: v. to help with information, knowledge or ideas in making a decision.

affect: v. to produce an effect on; to influence ("A lack of sleep affected the singer's performance.").

afraid: ad. feeling fear.

after: ad. later; behind.

again: ad. another time; as before.

against: ad. opposed to; not agreeing with something.

agency: n. an organization that is part of a larger group ("an agency of the United Nations").

age: n. how old a person or thing is.

aggression: n. an attack against a person or country; the violation of a country's borders.

ago: ad. of time past; before now.

agree: v. to have the same belief as someone; to be willing to do something.

agriculture: n. farming.

aid: v. to help; to support; n. help, assistance.

aim: v. to point a gun at; n. a goal or purpose.

air force: n. a military organization using airplanes.

air: n. the mixture of gases around the earth, mostly nitrogen and oxygen, that we breathe.

airplane: n. a vehicle with wings that flies.

airport: n. a place where airplanes take off and land.

album: n. a collection of recorded music.

alcohol: n. a strong, colorless liquid, usually made from grain, used as a drug or in industrial products.

alive: ad. having life; not dead.

all: ad. everything; everyone; the complete amount.

ally: n. a nation or person joined with another for a special purpose.

almost: ad. a little less than completely.

alone: ad. separated from others.

along: ad. near or on ("along the road").

already: ad. before now; even now.

also: ad. added to; too.

although: conj. even if it is true that.

always: ad. at all times; every time.

ambassador: n. a nation's highest diplomatic representative (to another government).

amend: v. to add to or to change (a proposal or law).

ammunition: n. the bullets or shells fired from guns.

among: ad. in or part of (a group).

amount: n. the number, size or weight of anything.

anarchy: n. a lack of order; lawlessness.

ancestor: n. a family member from the past.

ancient: ad. very old; long ago.

and: conj. also; in addition to; with.

anger: n. a strong emotion against someone or something.

animal: n. a living creature that moves, such as a dog or cat.

anniversary: n. a yearly celebration or observance of an event that happened in the past.

announce: v. to make known publicly; to declare officially.

another: ad. one more; a different one.

answer: n. a statement produced by a question; v. to make a statement after being asked a question.

any: ad. one or more of no special kind.

apologize: v. to express regret for a mistake or accident for which one accepts responsibility.

appeal: v. to take to a higher court, person or group for a decision; to call on somebody for help.

appear: v. to show oneself; to come into sight; to seem.

appoint: v. to name; to choose ("appoint a judge").

approve: v. to agree with; to agree to support.

archeology: n. the scientific study of past human life and activities.

area: n. any place or part of it.

argue: v. to offer reasons for or against something; to dispute; to disagree.

arms: n. military equipment; weapons.

army: n. military ground forces.

around: ad. on every side (of).

arrest: v. to seize a person for legal action; to take as a prisoner.

arrive: v. to come to a place, especially at the end of a trip.

artillery: n. big guns.

art: n. expressions or creations by humans, such as paintings, music, writing or statues.

as: conj. equally ("as fast as"); when; while.

ash: n. the part left after something burns.

ask: v. to question; to say something is wanted ("We ask the teacher questions every day.").

assist: v. to help.

astronaut: n. a person who travels in space.

astronomy: n. the scientific study of stars and the universe.

asylum: n. political protection given by a government to a person from another country.

atmosphere: n. the gases surrounding any star or planet.

atom: n. a very small part of all things; the smallest part of an element that can join with parts of other elements.

at: prep. in or near ("at the edge"); where ("look at"); when ("at noon").

attach: v. to tie together; to connect.

attack: n. a violent attempt to damage, injure or kill; v. to start a fight.

attempt: v. to work toward something; to try; to make an effort.

attend: v. to be present at.

automobile: n. a vehicle with wheels used to carry people; a car.

autumn: n. the time of the year between summer and winter.

average: n. something (a number) representing the middle; ad. common; normal.

avoid: v. to stay away from.

awake: ad. not sleeping.

award: n. an honor or prize for an act or service.

away: ad. not near.

baby: n. a newly born creature.

back: n. the part behind the front; ad. the other way from forward.

bacteria: n. living things that are one cell and can be seen only through a microscope; some cause disease.

bad: ad. wrong; acting against the law; not good.

balance: v. to make two sides or forces equal.

ball: n. something round.

balloon: n. a device of strong, light material that rises when filled with gas lighter than air.

ballot: n. a piece of paper used for voting.

bank: n. an organization that keeps and lends money.

ban: v. to not permit; to stop; n. an official restriction.

barrier: n. anything that blocks or makes an action difficult.

bar: v. to prevent or block.

base: n. a military center; v. to establish as a fact ("Her research was based on experiments.").

battle: n. a fight between opposing armed forces.

beat: v. to hit again and again.

beauty: n. that which pleases the eye, ear or spirit.

because: prep. for the reason that ("He left because he was sick.").

become: v. to come to be.

bed: n. a sleeping place.

before: prep. earlier.

begin: v. to do the first part of an action; to start.

behind: ad. at the back of; in back of.

believe: v. to think; to feel sure of; to accept as true; to trust.

bell: n. an instrument that makes a musical sound ("a church bell").

belong: v. to be owned by; to be a member of.

below: ad. lower than.

best: ad. the most good.

betray: v. to turn against; to be false to.

better: ad. more good than.

between: ad. in the space or time that separates; from one to the other ("talks between two nations").

be: v. to live; to happen; to exist.

big: ad. of great size; not small.

bill: n. a legislative proposal.

biology: n. the scientific study of life or living things in all their forms.

bird: n. a creature that flies.

bite: v. to cut with the teeth.

black: ad. dark; having the color like that of the night sky.

blame: v. to accuse; to hold responsible.

blanket: n. a cloth cover used to keep warm.

bleed: v. to lose blood.

blind: ad. not able to see.

block: v. to stop something from being done; to prevent movement.

blood: n. red fluid in the body.

blow: v. to move with force, as in air ("The wind blows.").

blue: ad. having the color like that of a clear sky.

boat: n. something built to travel on water that carries people or goods.

body: n. all of a person or animal; the remains of a person or animal.

boil: v. to heat a liquid until it becomes very hot.

bomb: n. a device that explodes with great force; v. to attack or destroy with bombs.

bone: n. the hard material in the body.

book: n. a long written work for reading.

border: n. a dividing line between nations.

born: v. to come to life; to come into existence.

borrow: v. to take as a loan.

both: ad. not just one of two, but the two together.

bottle: n. a container, usually made of glass, to hold liquid.

bottom: ad. the lowest part of something.

box: n. something to put things into; a container, usually made of paper or wood.

boycott: v. to refuse to take part in or deal with.

boy: n. a young male person.

brain: n. the control center of thought, emotions and body activity of all creatures.

brave: ad. having no fear.

bread: n. a food made from grain.

break: v. to divide into parts by force; to destroy.

breathe: v. to take air into the body and let it out again.

bridge: n. a structure built over a waterway, valley or road so people and vehicles can cross from one side to the other.

brief: ad. short; not long.

bright: ad. giving much light; strong and clear in color.

bring: v. to come with something.

broadcast: v. to send information, stories or music by radio or television; n. a radio or television program.

brother: n. a male with the same father or mother as another person.

brown: ad. having the color like that of coffee.

budget: n. a spending plan.

building: n. anything built for use as a house, factory, office, school, store or place of entertainment.

build: v. to join materials together to make something.

bullet: n. a small piece of metal shot from a gun.

burn: v. to be on fire; to destroy or damage by fire.

burst: v. to break open suddenly.

bury: v. to put into the ground and cover with earth.

business: n. one's work; buying and selling to earn money; trade.

bus: n. a public vehicle to carry people.

busy: ad. doing something; very active.

but: conj. however; other than; yet.

buy: v. to get by paying something, usually money.

by: conj. near; at; next to ("by the road"); from ("a play by William Shakespeare"); not later than ("by midnight").

cabinet: n. a group of ministers that helps lead a government.

call: v. to give a name to ("I call myself John."); to ask for or request ("They called for an end to the fighting.").

calm: ad. quiet; peaceful; opposite tense.

camera: n. a device for taking pictures.

campaign: n. a competition by opposing political candidates seeking support from voters; a connected series of military actions during a war.

camp: n. a place with temporary housing.

cancel: v. to end; to stop.

cancer: n. a disease in which dangerous cells grow quickly and destroy parts of the body.

candidate: n. a person who seeks or is nominated for an office or an honor.

can: v. to be able to; to have the right to; n. a container used to hold liquid or food, usually made of metal.

capitalism: n. an economic system in which the production of most goods and services is owned and operated for profit by private citizens or companies.

capital: n. the official center of a government; the city where a country's government is.

capture: v. to make a person or animal a prisoner; to seize or take by force; to get control of.

careful: ad. acting safely; with much thought.

care: v. to like; to protect; to feel worry or interest.

car: n. a vehicle with wheels used to carry people; an automobile; a part of a train.

carry: v. to take something or someone from one place to another.

case: n. (court) a legal action; n. (medical) an incident of disease ("There was only one case of chicken pox at the school.").

catch: v. to seize after a chase; to stop and seize with the hands.

cat: n. a small animal that often lives with humans.

cause: v. to make happen; n. the thing or person that produces a result.

ceasefire: n. a halt in fighting, usually by agreement.

celebrate: v. to honor a person or event with special activities.

cell: n. a small mass of living material that is part of all plants and animals.

center: n. the middle of something; the place in the middle; a place that is the main point of an activity.

century: n. one hundred years.

ceremony: n. an act or series of acts done in a special way established by tradition.

chairman: n. a person leading a meeting or an organized group.

champion: n. the best; the winner.

chance: n. a possibility of winning or losing or that something will happen.

change: v. to make different; to become different.

charge: v. to accuse someone of something, usually a crime; n. a statement in which someone is accused of something.

chase: v. to run or go after someone or something.

cheat: v. to get by a trick; to steal from.

cheer: v. to shout approval or praise.

chemicals: n. elements found in nature or made by people; substances used in the science of chemistry.

chemistry: n. the scientific study of substances, what they are made of, how they act under different conditions, and how they form other substances.

chief: n. the head or leader of a group; ad. leading; most important.

child: n. a baby; a boy or girl.

children: n. more than one child.

choose: v. to decide between two or more.

circle: n. a closed shape that has all its points equally distant from the center, like an "O".

citizen: n. a person who is a member of a country by birth or by law.

city: n. any important large town.

civilian: ad. not military.

civil rights: n. the political, economic and social rights given equally to all people of a nation.

claim: v. to say something as a fact.

clash: n. a battle; v. to fight or oppose.

clean: v. to make pure; ad. free from dirt or harmful substances ("clean water").

clear: ad. easy to see or see through; easily understood.

clergy: n. a body of officials within a religious organization.

climate: n. the normal weather conditions of a place.

climb: v. to go up or down something by using the feet and sometimes the hands.

clock: n. a device that measures and shows time.

close: v. to make something not open; ad. near to.

clothes: n. what people wear.

cloth: n. a material made from plants, chemicals, animal hair and other substances.

cloud: n. a mass of fog high in the sky.

coalition: n. forces, groups or nations joined together.

coal: n. a solid black substance used as fuel.

coast: n. land on the edge of the ocean.

coffee: n. a drink made from the plant of the same name.

cold: ad. not warm; having or feeling great coolness or a low temperature.

collect: v. to bring or gather together in one place; to demand and receive ("collect taxes").

college: n. a small university.

colony: n. land controlled by another country or government.

color: n. the different effects of light on the eye, making blue, red, brown, black, yellow and others.

combine: v. to mix or bring together.

come: v. to move toward; to arrive.

command: v. to order; to have power over something.

comment: v. to say something about; to express an opinion about something.

committee: n. a group of people given special work.

common: ad. usual; same for all ("a common purpose").

communicate: v. to tell; to give or exchange information.

community: n. a group of people living together in one place or area.

company: n. a business organized for trade, industrial or other purposes.

compare: v. to examine what is different or similar.

compete: v. to try to do as well as, or better than, another or others.

complete: ad. having all parts; ended or finished.

complex: ad. of or having many parts that are difficult to understand; not simple.

compromise: n. the settlement of an argument where each side agrees to accept less than first demanded.

computer: n. an electronic machine for storing and organizing information, and for communicating with others.

concern: n. interest, worry ("express concern about"); v. to fear ("to be concerned").

condemn: v. to say a person or action is wrong or bad.

condition: n. something declared necessary to complete an agreement; a person's health.

conference: n. a meeting.

confirm: v. to approve; to say that something is true.

conflict: n. a fight; a battle, especially a long one.

congratulate: v. to praise a person or to express pleasure for success or good luck.

Congress: n. the organization of people elected to make the laws of the United States (the House of Representatives and the Senate); a similar organization in other countries.

connect: v. to join one thing to another; to unite; to link.

conservative: n. one who usually supports tradition and opposes great change.

consider: v. to give thought to; to think about carefully.

constitution: n. the written general laws and ideas that form a nation's system of government.

container: n. a box, bottle or can used to hold something.

contain: v. to hold; to include.

continent: n. any of the seven great land areas of the world.

continue: v. to go on doing or being.

control: v. to direct; to have power over.

convention: n. a large meeting for a special purpose.

cook: v. to heat food before eating it.

cool: ad. almost cold.

cooperate: v. to act or work together.

copy: v. to make something exactly like another; n. something made to look exactly like another.

corn: n. a food grain.

correct: ad. true; free from mistakes; v. to change to what is right.

cost: n. the price or value of something ("The cost of the book is five dollars."); v. to be valued at ("The book costs five dollars.").

cotton: n. a material made from a plant of the same name.

country: n. a nation; the territory of a nation; land away from cities.

count: v. to speak or add numbers.

court: n. where trials take place; where judges make decisions about law.

cover: v. to put something over a person or thing; n. anything that is put over a person or thing.

cow: n. a farm animal used for its milk.

crash: v. to fall violently; to hit with great force.

create: v. to make; to give life or form to.

creature: n. any living being; any animal or human.

credit: n. an agreement that payments will be made at a later time.

crew: n. a group of people working together.

crime: n. an act that violates a law.

criminal: n. a person who is responsible for a crime.

crisis: n. an extremely important time when something may become much better or worse; a dangerous situation.

criticize: v. to say what is wrong with something or someone; to condemn; to judge.

crops: n. plants that are grown and gathered for food, such as grains, fruits and vegetables.

cross: v. to go from one side to another; to go across.

crowd: n. a large number of people gathered in one place.

crush: v. to damage or destroy by great weight; to defeat completely.

cry: v. to express or show sorrow or pain.

culture: n. all the beliefs, traditions and arts of a group or population.

cure: v. to improve health; to make well ("The doctor can cure the disease."); n. something that makes a sick person well ("Antibiotics are a cure for infection.").

curfew: n. an order to people to stay off the streets or to close their businesses.

current: n. movement of air, water or electricity; ad. belonging to the present time ("She found the report in a current publication.").

custom: n. a long-established belief or activity of a people.

customs: n. taxes on imports.

cut: v. to divide or injure with a sharp tool; to make less; to reduce.

damage: v. to cause injury or destruction; n. harm; hurt or injury, usually to things.

dam: n. a wall built across a river to hold back flowing water.

dance: v. to move the body and feet to music; n. a series of steps, usually to music.

danger: n. a strong chance of suffering injury, damage or loss.

dark: ad. having little or no light ("The room was dark.").

date: n. an expression of time; a day, month and year.

daughter: n. a person's female child.

day: n. twenty-four hours; the hours of sunlight.

dead: ad. not living.

deaf: ad. not able to hear.

deal: v. to have to do with ("The talks will deal with the problem of pollution."); to buy or sell ("Her company deals in plastic.").

debate: v. to argue for or against something; n. a public discussion or argument.

debt: n. something that is owed; the condition of owing.

decide: v. to choose; to settle; to judge.

declare: v. to say; to make a statement.

decrease: v. to make less in size or amount.

deep: ad. going far down; a long way from top to bottom.

defeat: v. to cause to lose in a battle or struggle; n. a loss; the condition of having lost.

defend: v. to guard or fight against attack; to protect.

deficit: n. a shortage that results when spending is greater than earnings, or imports are greater than exports.

define: v. to give the meaning of; to explain.

degree: n. a measure of temperature.

delay: v. to decide to do something at a later time; to postpone; to cause to be late.

delegate: n. one sent to act for another; one who represents another.

demand: v. to ask by ordering; to ask with force.

democracy: n. the system of government in which citizens vote to choose leaders or to make other important decisions.

demonstrate: v. to make a public show of opinions or feelings ("The crowd demonstrated in support of human rights."); to explain by using examples ("The teacher demonstrated the idea with an experiment.").

denounce: v. to accuse of being wrong or evil; to criticize severely.

dense: ad. close together; thick.

deny: v. to declare that something is not true; to refuse a request.

depend: v. to need help and support.

deplore: v. to regret strongly; to express sadness.

deploy: v. to move forces or weapons into positions for action.

depression: n. severe unhappiness; also a period of reduced business and economic activity during which many people lose their jobs.

describe: v. to give a word picture of something; to give details of something.

desert: n. a dry area of land.

design: v. to plan or create plans for.

desire: v. to want very much; to wish for.

destroy: v. to break into pieces; to end the existence of.

detail: n. a small part of something; a small piece of information.

develop: v. to grow; to create; to experience progress.

device: n. a piece of equipment made for a special purpose.

dictator: n. a ruler with complete power.

diet: n. usual daily food and drink.

die: v. to become dead; to stop living; to end.

different: ad. not the same.

difficult: ad. not easy; hard to do, make or carry out.

dig: v. to make a hole in the ground.

dinner: n. the main amount of food eaten at a usual time ("The family had its dinner at noon."); a special event that includes food ("The official dinner took place at the White House.").

diplomat: n. a person who represents his or her government in dealing with another government.

direction: n. the way (east, west, north, south); where someone or something came from or went to.

direct: v. to lead; to aim or show the way ("He directed me to the theater."); ad. straight to something; not through some other person or thing ("The path is direct.").

dirt: n. earth or soil.

disappear: v. to become unseen; to no longer exist.

disarm: v. to take away weapons; to no longer keep weapons; to make a bomb harmless by removing its exploding device.

discover: v. to find or learn something.

discuss: v. to talk about; to exchange ideas.

disease: n. a sickness in living things, often caused by viruses, germs or bacteria.

dismiss: v. to send away; to refuse to consider.

dispute: v. to oppose strongly by argument; n. an angry debate.

dissident: n. a person who strongly disagrees with his or her government.

distance: n. the amount of space between two places or objects ("The distance from my house to your house is two kilometers.").

dive: v. to jump into water head first.

divide: v. to separate into two or more parts.

doctor: n. a person trained in medicine to treat sick people.

document: n. an official piece of paper with facts written on it, used as proof or support of something.

dog: n. a small animal that often lives with humans.

dollar: n. United States money, one hundred cents.

door: n. an opening for entering or leaving a building or room.

do: v. to act; to make an effort.

down: ad. from higher to lower; in a low place.

dream: v. to have a picture or story in the mind during sleep; n. a picture or story in the mind during sleep; a happy idea about the future.

drink: v. to take liquid into the body through the mouth.

drive: v. to control a moving vehicle.

drop: v. to fall or let fall; to go lower.

drown: v. to die under water.

drug: n. anything used as a medicine or in making medicine; a chemical substance used to ease pain or to affect the mind.

dry: ad. not wet; without rain.

during: ad. through the whole time; while (something is happening).

dust: n. pieces of matter so small that they can float in the air.

duty: n. one's job or responsibility; what one must do because it is right and just.

each: ad. every one by itself.

early: ad. at or near the beginning, especially the beginning of the day; opposite late.

earn: v. to be paid in return for work done.

earth: n. the planet we all live on; the ground or soil.

earthquake: n. a sudden, violent shaking of the earth's surface.

ease: v. to reduce; to make less difficult.

east: n. the direction from which the sun rises.

easy: ad. not difficult; not hard to do.

eat: v. to take food into the body through the mouth.

ecology: n. the scientific study of the environment and links among living and material things.

economy: n. the system by which money, industry and trade are organized.

edge: n. the line where something ends or begins.

education: n. the act of teaching.

effect: n. the result or change caused by something ("The storm had a serious effect on the economy.").

effort: n. an attempt; the work necessary to do something.

egg: n. the rounded object containing unborn young produced by female birds, fish or reptiles; a single cell in a female person or animal that can develop into a baby.

either: ad. one of two, but not the other.

electricity: n. a form of energy that flows through wires to provide heat and light, and power to machines.

electron: n. a small part of an atom that has an electrical force.

elect: v. to choose by voting.

element: n. one of more than 100 substances known to science that cannot be separated into other substances.

embassy: n. the offices of an ambassador and his or her assistants.

emergency: n. an unexpected and dangerous situation demanding quick action.

emotion: n. a strong feeling such as love, hate, fear or sadness.

employ: v. to give work in return for wages.

empty: ad. having nothing inside; v. to remove everything.

end: v. to stop; to finish; n. the part which comes last.

enemy: n. a person opposing or hating another; a person or people of the other side in a war.

energy: n. power used to do work, usually with machines; the ability and willingness to be active.

enforce: v. to make something be done.

engineer: n. a person who designs engines, machines, roads, bridges or railroads.

engine: n. a machine that uses energy to cause movement or to do work.

enjoy: v. to be pleased or satisfied by something.

enough: ad. as much as necessary; pro. the amount needed.

enter: v. to come or go into.

environment: n. all surrounding things, conditions and influences that affect life; the natural world of land, sea, air, plants and animals.

equal: ad. the same in amount, size, weight or value; having the same rights.

equipment: n. things, tools or machines needed for a purpose or activity.

escape: v. to get free; to get away from; to get out of.

especially: ad. more than others ("We liked the food, especially the fish.").

establish: v. to bring into existence; to create.

estimate: v. to form an opinion about a value, size or amount using less than complete information.

ethnic: ad. of or concerning people belonging to a large group because of their race, religion, language, tribe or where their ancestors lived.

evaporate: v. to change from a liquid into a gas.

even: ad. in a way not thought possible ("They survived, even though the building was destroyed.").

event: n. that which happens, especially something of importance.

ever: ad. at any time.

every: ad. each one; all.

evidence: n. material or facts that prove something; a reason for believing.

evil: ad. not good; extremely bad.

exact: ad. having no mistakes; correct in every detail.

examine: v. to study closely.

example: n. a part that shows what the rest of a thing or group is like.

excellent: ad. extremely good.

except: prep. but for.

exchange: v. to trade; to give or receive one thing for another.

excuse: v. to take away blame; to pardon; to forgive; n. a reason (sometimes false) for an action.

execute: v. to kill.

exercise: n. an activity or effort for the purpose of improving the body or to stay in good health.

exile: v. to force a person to leave his or her country; to expel; n. a person who is forced to leave his or her country.

exist: v. to be; to live.

expand: v. to make larger; to grow larger.

expect: v. to think or believe that something will happen; to wait for an event.

expel: v. to force out; to remove from; to send away.

experience: v. to live through an event, situation or condition ("She experienced great pain."); n. something that one has done or lived through ("The experience caused her great pain.").

experiment: v. to test; n. a test or trial carried out to prove if an idea is true or false, or to discover something.

expert: n. a person with special knowledge or training.

explain: v. to give reasons for; to make clear; to tell about; to tell the meaning.

explode: v. to break apart violently with a loud noise, like a bomb.

explore: v. to travel in a place that is not well known to learn more about it; to make a careful search; to examine closely.

export: v. to send to another country; n. something sent to another country, usually for sale.

express: v. to say clearly.

extend: v. to stretch out in area or length; to continue for a longer time.

extra: ad. more than normal, expected or necessary.

extreme: ad. more than the usual or accepted.

extremist: n. a person with strong religious or political beliefs who acts in an extreme or violent way.

face: n. the front of the head, including eyes, nose, mouth; v. to look toward; to turn toward; to have before you, such as a problem or danger.

fact: n. something known or proved to be true.

factory: n. a building or group of buildings where goods are made.

fail: v. to not succeed; to not reach a goal.

fair: ad. just; honest; what is right.

fall: v. to go down quickly; to come down; to drop to the ground or a lower position.

false: ad. not true; not correct.

family: n. the group that includes children and their parents.

famous: ad. known very well to many people.

far: ad. at, to or from a great distance.

farm: n. land used to grow crops and animals for food.

fast: ad. moving or working at great speed; quick.

father: n. the male parent; a man who has a child or children.

fat: n. tissue in the bodies of humans and animals used to store energy and to keep warm; ad. thick; heavy.

fear: v. to be afraid; to worry that something bad is near or may happen ("He feared falling down."); n. a strong emotion when there is danger or trouble ("He had a fear that he would fall down.").

federal: ad. of or having to do with a national or central government.

feed: v. to give food to.

feel: v. to have or experience an emotion; to know by touching.

female: n. a woman or girl; the sex that gives birth; ad. of or about women.

fence: n. something around an area of land to keep animals or people in or out.

fertile: ad. rich in production of plants or animals; producing much.

few: ad. not many; a small number of.

field: n. an area of open land, usually used to grow crops or to raise animals.

fierce: ad. extremely strong; violent; angry.

fight: v. to use violence or force; to attempt to defeat or destroy an enemy; n. the use of force; a battle.

fill: v. to put or pour something into a container until there is space for no more.

film: v. to record something so it can be seen again; to make a motion picture or movie; n. a thin piece of material for making pictures with a camera; a movie.

final: ad. at the end; last.

financial: ad. of or about the system that includes the use of money, credit, investments and banks.

find: v. to discover or learn something by searching or by accident; to decide a court case ("The jury finds the man guilty of murder.").

fine: n. a payment ordered by a court to punish someone for a crime; ad. very good; very small or thin.

finish: v. to complete; to end.

fire: v. to shoot a gun; n. the heat and light produced by something burning.

fireworks: n. rockets producing bright fire in the sky, used in holiday celebrations.

firm: ad. not easily moved or changed ("She is firm in her opinion.").

first: ad. coming before all others.

fish: n. a creature that lives and can breathe in water.

fit: v. to be of the correct size or shape ("These shoes fit my feet.").

fix: v. to make good or right again.

flag: n. a piece of colored cloth used to represent a nation, government or organization.

flat: ad. smooth; having no high places.

flee: v. to run away from.

float: v. to be on water without sinking; to move or be moved gently on water or through air.

flood: v. to cover with water; n. the movement of water out of a river, lake or ocean onto land.

floor: n. the bottom part of a room for walking on ("The book fell to the floor."); the level of a building ("The fire was on the first floor.").

flower: n. the colored part of plants that carry seeds.

flow: v. to move like a liquid.

fluid: n. any substance that can flow, such as a liquid.

fly: v. to move through the air with wings, like a bird or airplane; to travel in an airplane or flying vehicle.

fog: n. a mass of wet air that is difficult to see through; a cloud close to the ground.

follow: v. to come or go after; to accept the rule or power of; to obey.

food: n. that which is taken in by all living things for energy, strength and growth.

fool: v. to make someone believe something that is not true; to trick; n. a person who is tricked easily.

foot: n. the bottom part of the leg; the part of the body that touches the ground when a person or animal walks.

force: v. to make someone do something or make something happen by using power; n. power, strength; strength used against a person or object; military power of a nation; a military group.

foreign: ad. of, about or from another nation; not from one's own place or country.

forest: n. a place of many trees.

forget: v. to not remember.

forgive: v. to pardon; to excuse; to remove guilt.

former: ad. earlier in time; not now.

form: v. to make; to start; to shape ("They formed a swim team."); n. a kind ("Swimming is a form of exercise.").

for: prep. because of ("He is famous for his work."); in exchange ("Give me one dollar for the book."); through space or time ("They travelled for one hour."); representative of ("I speak for all people."); to be employed by ("She works for a computer company.").

forward: ad. the direction in front of; toward the front.

freedom: n. the condition of being free.

free: v. to release; ad. not controlled by another or by outside forces; not in prison; independent; not limited by rules; without cost.

freeze: v. to cause or to become very cold; to make or to become hard by cold.

fresh: ad. newly made or gathered; recent.

friend: n. a person one likes and trusts.

frighten: v. to cause great fear.

from: prep. having a person, place or thing as a beginning or cause ("It is a message from the president."); at a place distant, not near ("The school is five kilometers from my home."); because of ("He is suffering from cancer.").

front: n. the forward part; the opposite of back; the beginning; the first part.

fruit: n. food from trees and plants.

fuel: n. any substance burned to create heat or power.

full: ad. containing as much as a person or thing can hold; complete.

funeral: n. a ceremony held in connection with the burial or burning of the dead.

fun: n. anything that is pleasing and causes happiness.

fusion: n. a joining together; in atomic fusion, atomic particles are joined together to produce nuclear energy.

future: n. time after now ("We can talk about it in the future."); ad. in the time to come ("All future meetings will be held in this room.").

gain: v. to get possession of; to get more; to increase.

game: n. an activity with rules in which people or teams play or compete, usually sports.

gas: n. any substance that is not solid or liquid; any substance that burns to provide heat, light or power.

gather: v. to bring or come together into a group or place; to collect.

general: n. a high military leader; ad. without details; affecting or including all or almost all.

gentle: ad. soft; kind; not rough or violent.

get: v. to receive; to gain; to go and bring back; to become; to become the owner of.

gift: n. something given without cost.

girl: n. a young female person.

give: v. to present to another to keep without receiving payment.

glass: n. a hard, clear material that is easily broken, used most often for windows or for containers to hold liquids.

goal: n. that toward which an effort is directed; that which is aimed at; the end of a trip or race.

god: n. the spirit that is honored as creator of all things ("They believe in God."); a spirit or being believed in many religions to have special powers.

gold: n. a highly valued yellow metal.

good: ad. pleasing; helpful; kind; correct; not bad.

goods: n. things owned or made to be sold.

government: n. a system of governing; the organization of people that rules a country, city or area.

govern: v. to control; to rule by military or political power.

go: v. to move from one place to another; to leave.

grain: n. the seed of grass plants used for food, such as wheat, rice and corn; those plants that produce the seeds.

granddaughter: n. the daughter of a person's daughter or son.

grandfather: n. the father of a person's father or mother.

grandmother: n. the mother of a person's father or mother.

grandson: n. the son of a person's daughter or son.

grass: n. a plant with long, narrow, green leaves.

gravity: n. the force that pulls things toward the center of the earth.

gray: ad. having the color like that made by mixing black and white.

great: ad. very large or more than usual in size or number; very good; important.

green: ad. having the color like that made by mixing yellow and blue; having the color like that of growing leaves and grass.

grind: v. to reduce to small pieces by crushing.

ground: n. land; the earth's surface; soil.

group: n. a number of people or things together; a gathering of people working for a common purpose.

grow: v. to develop or become bigger; to increase in size or amount.

guarantee: v. to promise a result; to promise that something will happen.

guard: v. to watch and protect a person, place or thing ("He guards the president."); n. a person or thing that watches or protects ("He is a prison guard.").

guerrilla: n. a person who fights as part of an unofficial army, usually against an official army or police.

guide: v. to lead to; to show the way; n. one who shows the way.

guilty: ad. having done something wrong or in violation of a law; responsible for a bad action.

gun: n. a weapon that shoots bullets.

hair: n. the fine material that grows from the skin, especially from the head.

half: n. one of two equal parts of something.

halt: v. to come or cause to come to a stop; to stop.

hang: v. to place something so the highest part is supported and the lower part is not; to kill by hanging.

happen: v. to become a fact or event; to take place.

happy: ad. pleased; satisfied; feeling good; not sad.

hard: ad. not easily cut or broken; solid; difficult to do or understand; needing much effort or force.

harm: v. to injure; to damage; n. damage; hurt.

harvest: v. to gather crops; n. the crop after it is gathered.

hate: v. to have strong emotions against; to consider as an enemy; opposite love.

hat: n. a head cover.

have: v. to possess; to own; to hold.

headquarters: n. the center from which orders are given; the main offices of a business or organization.

head: v. to lead; to command; n. leader; chief; the top part of something; the highest position.

health: n. the general condition of the body and mind; the condition of being free from sickness or disease.

heal: v. to return to good health; to cure; to become well.

heart: n. pumps blood through the body.

hear: v. to receive sound through the ears; to receive news about.

heat: v. to make hot or warm; n. great warmth; that which is produced by burning fuel; energy from the sun.

heavy: ad. having much weight; not easy to lift; of great amount or force.

helicopter: n. a machine without wings that can fly up or down or remain in one place above the ground.

help: v. to give support; to assist; to make easier; n. support; aid.

he: pro. the boy or man who is being spoken about.

here: ad. in, to or at this place.

hero: n. a person honored for being brave or wise.

hide: v. to prevent from being seen or found; to make secret.

high: ad. tall; far up; far above the ground; important; above others.

hijack: v. to seize or take control of a vehicle by force.

hill: n. a small mountain.

history: n. the written record or description of past events; the study of the past.

hit: v. to strike; to touch with force.

hold: v. to carry or support, usually in the hands or arms; to keep in one position; to keep as a prisoner; to contain; to possess; to occupy; to organize and be involved in ("The two sides hold talks this week.").

hole: n. an opening; a torn or broken place in something.

holiday: n. a day when one does not work; a day on which no work is done to honor or remember a person or event.

holy: ad. greatly honored in religion.

home: n. the building where a person lives, especially with family; the place where one was born or comes from; the area or country where one lives.

honest: ad. truthful; able to be trusted.

honor: v. to obey; to show strong, good feelings for ("to honor one's parents"); n. an award; an act of giving special recognition ("He received many honors for his efforts to help others.").

hope: v. to expect; to believe there is a good chance that something will happen as wanted; to want something to happen.

horrible: ad. causing great fear; terrible.

horse: n. a large animal often used for racing, riding or farm work.

hospital: n. a place where sick or injured people are given medical care.

hostage: n. a person captured and held as a guarantee that a demand or promise will be honored.

hostile: ad. ready to fight; ready for war.

hot: ad. having or feeling great heat or a high temperature.

hotel: n. a building with rooms, and often food, for travellers.

hour: n. a measure of time; sixty minutes.

house: n. a building in which people live; a country's parliament or lawmaking group ("House of Representatives").

how: ad. in what way; to what amount.

however: conj. yet; but.

huge: ad. very big; of great size.

human: ad. of or about people.

humor: n. the ability to understand, enjoy or express what makes people laugh.

hunger: n. the need for food.

hunt: v. to search for animals to capture or kill them; to seek; to try to find.

hurry: v. to do or go fast.

hurt: v. to cause pain, injury or damage.

husband: n. a man who is married.

ice: n. frozen water.

idea: n. a thought or picture in the mind; a belief.

identify: v. to recognize someone or something and to say who or what they are.

if: conj. on condition; provided that ("I will go if you go.").

illegal: ad. not legal; in violation of a law.

image: n. a reproduction of the appearance of a person or thing.

imagine: v. to make a picture in the mind; to form an idea.

immediate: ad. without delay; very near in time or place.

immigrant: n. a person who arrives in a country to live there.

important: ad. having great meaning, value or power.

import: v. to bring from another country; n. something brought from another country, usually for sale.

improve: v. to make better; to become better.

incident: n. an event or something that happens.

incite: v. to urge or cause an action or emotion, usually something bad or violent.

include: v. to have; to make a part of.

increase: v. to make more in size or amount.

independent: ad. not influenced by or controlled by another or others; free; separate.

individual: n. one person.

industry: n. any business that produces goods or provides services; the work and related activity in factories and offices; all organizations involved in manufacturing.

infect: v. to make sick with something that causes disease.

inflation: n. a continuing rise in prices while the value of money goes down.

influence: v. to have an effect on someone or something; to cause change.

information: n. knowledge; facts.

inform: v. to tell; to give knowledge to.

inject: v. to force a fluid into, such as putting medicine or drugs into the body through the skin.

injure: v. to cause harm or damage to a person or animal.

innocent: ad. not guilty of a crime; not responsible for a bad action.

in: prep. inside; held by; contained by; surrounded by; during.

insane: ad. mentally sick.

insect: n. a very small creature, usually with many legs and sometimes with wings.

inspect: v. to look at something carefully; to examine, especially by an expert.

instead: ad. in the place of; taking the place of.

instrument: n. a tool or device designed to do something or to make something.

insult: v. to say something or to do something that makes another person angry or dishonored.

intelligence: n. the ability to think or learn; information gathered by spying.

intelligent: ad. quick to understand or learn.

intense: ad. very strong; extremely serious.

interest: n. what is important to someone ("He acted to protect his interests." "She had a great interest in painting."); a share in owning a business; money paid for the use of money borrowed.

interfere: v. to get in the way of; to work against; to take part in the activities of others, especially when not asked to do so.

international: ad. of or about more than one nation or many nations; of the whole world.

intervene: v. to come between; to come between in order to settle or solve.

intestines: n. tubes through which food passes after it is broken down in the stomach; part of the intestines also remove solid wastes from the body.

invade: v. to enter an area or country by force with an army.

invent: v. to plan and make something never made before; to create a new thing or way of doing something.

investigate: v. to study or examine all information about an event, situation or charge; to search for the truth.

invest: v. to give money to a business or organization with the hope of making more money.

invite: v. to ask someone to take part in or join an event, organization or gathering.

involve: v. to take part in; to become a part of; to include.

I: pro. the person speaking.

iron: n. a strong, hard metal used to make machines and tools.

island: n. a land area with water all around it.

issue: n. an important problem or subject that people are discussing or arguing about.

it: pro. a thing, place, event or idea that is being spoken about ("The sky is blue, but it also has a few white clouds.").

jail: n. a prison for those waiting to be tried for a crime or for those serving sentences for crimes that are not serious.

jewel: n. a valuable stone, such as a diamond or emerald.

job: n. the work that one does to earn money.

joint: ad. shared by two or more.

join: v. to put together or come together; to become part of or a member of.

joke: n. something done or said to cause others to laugh.

judge: v. to form an opinion about; to decide a question, especially a legal one; n. a public official who decides problems of law in a court.

jump: v. to push down on the feet and move up quickly into the air.

jury: n. a group of people chosen to decide what is true in a trial.

just: ad. only ("Help me for just a minute."); very shortly before or after the present ("He just left."); at the same time ("He left just as I came in."); what is right or fair ("The law is just, in my opinion.").

keep: v. to possess; to have for oneself.

kick: v. to hit with the foot.

kidnap: v. to seize and take away by force.

kidney: n. cleans liquid wastes from the body.

kill: v. to make dead; to cause to die.

kind: n. sort ("What kind of dog is that?"); ad. gentle; caring; helpful.

kiss: v. to touch with the mouth to show love or honor.

knife: n. a tool or weapon used to cut.

knowledge: n. that which is known; learning or understanding.

know: v. to understand something as correct; to have the facts about; to recognize someone because you have met and talked together before.

laboratory: n. a room or place where experiments in science are done.

labor: n. work; workers as a group.

lack: v. to be without; n. the condition of needing, wanting or not having.

lake: n. a large area of fresh water surrounded by land.

land: v. to come to the earth from the air ("Airplanes land at airports."); n. the part of the earth not covered by water; the ground.

language: n. words and their use; what people speak in a country, nation or group.

large: ad. big; being of more than usual size, amount or number; opposite small.

last: v. to continue ("The talks will last three days."); ad. after all others; the only one remaining ("She is the last person in line.").

late: ad. after the correct time; near the end; opposite early.

laugh: v. to make sounds to express pleasure or happy feelings.

launch: v. to put into operation; to begin; to send into the air or space.

law: n. all or any rules made by a government.

lead: v. to show the way; to command; to control; to go first.

leak: v. to come out of or to escape through a small opening or hole (usually a gas or liquid).

learn: v. to get knowledge about; to come to know a fact or facts.

leave: v. to go away from; to let something stay where it is.

left: ad. on the side that is toward the west when one is facing north; opposite right.

legal: ad. of or in agreement with the law.

legislature: n. a government lawmaking group.

lend: v. to permit someone to use a thing temporarily; to make a loan of money.

less: ad. smaller in amount; not as much.

letter: n. a message written on paper; a communication in writing sent to another person.

let: v. to permit to do or to be; to make possible.

level: n. the amount or height that something reaches or rises to; the position of something or someone.

liberal: ad. one who usually supports social progress or change.

lie: v. to have one's body on the ground or other surface; to say something that one knows is not true.

life: n. the time between being born and dying; opposite death; all living things.

lift: v. to take or bring up to a higher place or level.

light: n. a form of energy that affects the eyes so that one is able to see; anything that produces light; ad. bright; clear; not heavy.

lightning: n. light produced by electricity in the air, usually during a storm.

like: v. to be pleased with; to have good feelings for someone or something; ad. in the same way as; similar to.

limit: v. to restrict to a number or amount; n. the greatest amount or number permitted.

line: n. a long, thin mark on a surface; a number of people or things organized; one after another; the edge of an area protected by military forces.

link: v. to connect; to unite one thing or event with another; n. a relation between two or more things, situations or events.

liquid: n. a substance that is not a solid or gas, and can move freely, like water.

listen: v. to try to hear.

list: v. to put in writing a number of names of people or things; n. a written series of names or things.

literature: n. all the poems, stories and writings of a period of time or of a country.

little: ad. not tall or big; a small amount.

liver: n. makes some proteins and enzymes; removes poisons from the blood.

live: v. to have life; to exist; ad. having life; alive.

load: v. to put objects on or into a vehicle or container; n. that which is carried.

loan: n. money borrowed that usually must be returned with interest payments; something borrowed.

local: ad. about or having to do with one place.

lonely: ad. feeling alone and wanting friends; visited by few or no people ("a lonely man").

long: ad. not short; measuring from beginning to end; measuring much; for much time.

look: v. to turn the eyes toward so as to see; to search or hunt for; to seem to be.

lose: v. to have no longer; to not find; to fail to keep; to be defeated.

loud: ad. having a strong sound; full of sound or noise.

love: v. to like very much; to feel a strong, kind emotion (sometimes involving sex); n. a strong, kind emotion for someone or something; opposite hate.

low: ad. not high or tall; below the normal height; close to the ground.

loyal: ad. showing strong friendship and support for someone or something.

luck: n. something that happens by chance.

lung: n. takes in and expels air from the body.

machine: n. a device with moving parts used to do work.

magazine: n. a publication of news, stories, pictures or other information.

magnet: n. a piece of iron or other material that has a pulling force; this pulling force is called magnetism.

mail: n. letters, papers and other things sent through an official system, such as a post office.

main: ad. the most important or largest.

major: ad. great in size, importance or amount.

majority: n. the greater number; more than half.

make: v. to produce; to create; to build; to do something or to carry out an action; to cause to be or to become.

male: n. a man or boy; the sex that is the father of children; ad. of or about men.

man: n. an adult male human.

manufacture: v. to make goods in large amounts.

many: ad. a large number or amount of.

map: n. a picture of the earth's surface or a part of it.

march: v. to walk in a group like soldiers; to walk together in a large group to protest about something.

market: n. a place or area where goods are sold, bought or traded; an economic system in which the prices of things are decided by how many there are and how much money people are willing to pay for them.

mark: v. to make a sign or cut on something.

marry: v. to join a man and woman together as husband and wife; to become husband and wife (usually in a religious or civil ceremony).

mass: n. an amount of matter having no special form and usually of a large size.

material: n. the substance, substances or matter of which something is made or from which something can be made, such as wood, cloth or stone; anything that can be made into something else.

mate: v. to bring together a male and a female to create another creature.

mathematics: n. the science dealing with amounts, sizes and shapes, as explained by numbers and signs.

matter: n. anything that can be seen or felt; what things are made of.

mayor: n. the chief official of a city or town government.

may: v. a word used with an action word to mean permit or possible ("May I go?" "They may leave tomorrow.").

meal: n. food eaten to satisfy hunger, such as dinner.

mean: v. to want to; to give the idea of; to have the idea of.

measure: v. to learn the amount, size or distance of something; n. an action taken; a legislative proposal.

meat: n. the part of a dead animal used for food.

media: n. all public information organizations, including newspapers, television and radio.

medicine: n. a substance or drug used to treat disease or pain; the science or study of treating and curing disease or improving health.

meet: v. to come together with someone or something at the same time and place.

melt: v. to make a solid into a liquid by heating it.

member: n. one of a group.

memorial: n. something done or made to honor the memory of a person or event.

memory: n. a picture in the mind of past events; the ability to remember; a thing remembered.

mental: ad. about or having to do with the mind.

mercy: n. kindness toward those who should be punished; the power to be kind or to pardon.

message: n. written or spoken news or information; a note from one person to another person or group.

metal: n. a hard substance such as iron, steel or gold.

method: n. the way something is done.

microscope: n. a device used to make very small things look larger so they can be studied.

middle: n. the center; a place or time of equal distance from both sides or ends; ad. in the center.

militant: n. someone active in trying to cause political change, often by the use of force or violence.

military: n. the armed forces of a nation or group; ad. of or about the armed forces.

milk: n. the white liquid produced by female animals to feed their young.

mind: n. the thinking, feeling part of a person.

mineral: n. a substance found in nature that is not an animal or a plant, such as coal or salt.

mine: v. to dig useful or valuable substances out of the earth; n. a place in the earth where such substances are found; a bomb placed under the ground or under water so it cannot be seen.

minister: n. a member of a cabinet; a high government official ("prime minister,"foreign minister").

minor: ad. small in size; of little importance.

minority: n. the smaller number; opposite majority.

minute: n. a measure of time; one of the sixty equal parts of an hour; sixty seconds.

missile: n. any weapon that can be thrown or fired through the air and explodes when it reaches its target.

missing: ad. lost; not found.

miss: v. to fail to hit, see, reach or meet.

mistake: n. a wrong action or decision; an action done without the knowledge that it was wrong.

mix: v. to put different things together to make one thing.

mob: n. a large group of wild or angry people.

model: n. an example; something, usually small, made to show how something will look or work.

moderate: ad. not extreme.

modern: ad. of the present or very recent time; the most improved.

molecule: n. the smallest amount of a chemical substance that can exist.

money: n. pieces of metal or paper used to pay for things.

month: n. one of the twelve periods of time into which a year is divided.

moon: n. the bright object often seen in the night sky that orbits the earth about every twenty-nine days.

moral: ad. concerning what is right or wrong in someone's actions.

more: ad. greater in size or amount.

morning: n. the early part of the day, from sunrise until noon.

most: ad. greatest in size or amount.

mother: n. the female parent; a woman who has a child or children.

motion: n. a movement; a continuing change of position or place.

mountain: n. a part of the earth's surface that rises high above the area around it.

mourn: v. to express or feel sadness.

movement: n. the act of moving or a way of moving; a series of acts or efforts to reach a goal.

move: v. to change position; to put or keep in motion; to go.

movie: n. a motion picture; a film.

much: ad. great in amount.

murder: v. to kill another person illegally; n. the crime of killing another person.

music: n. the making of sounds by singing or using a musical instrument.

must: v. a word used with an action word to mean necessary ("You must go to school.").

mystery: n. something that is not or cannot be explained or understood; a secret.

name: v. to appoint; to nominate; to give a name to; n. a word by which a person, animal or thing is known or called.

narrow: ad. limited in size or amount; not wide; having a short distance from one side to the other.

nation: n. a country, together with its social and political systems.

native: n. someone who was born in a place, not one who moved there.

natural: ad. of or about nature; normal; common to its kind.

nature: n. all the plants, animals and other things on earth not created by humans; events or processes not caused by humans.

navy: n. the part of a country's military force trained to fight at sea.

near: ad. not far; close to.

necessary: ad. needed to get a result or effect; required.

need: v. to require; to want; to be necessary to have or to do.

negotiate: v. to talk about a problem or situation to find a common solution.

neither: ad. not one or the other of two.

nerve: n. a thin piece of tissue that sends information through the body to and from the brain.

neutral: ad. not supporting one side or the other in a dispute.

never: ad. at no time; not ever.

new: ad. not existing before; not known before; recently made, built, bought or grown; another; different.

news: n. information about any recent events, especially as reported by the media.

next: ad. coming immediately after; nearest.

nice: ad. pleasing; good; kind.

night: n. the time between when the sun goes down and when it rises, when there is little or no light.

no: ad. used to reject or to refuse; not any; not at all.

noise: n. sound, especially when loud.

nominate: v. to name someone as a candidate for an election; to propose a person for an office or position.

noon: n. the middle of the day; twelve o'clock in the daytime.

normal: n. the usual condition, amount or form; ad. usual; what is expected.

north: n. the direction to the left of a person facing the rising sun.

not: ad. a word showing that something is denied or untrue ("She is not going.").

note: v. to talk about something already known; n. a word or words written to help a person remember; a short letter.

nothing: n. not anything; no thing.

now: ad. at this time; immediately.

nowhere: ad. not in, to or at any place.

nuclear: ad. of or about the energy produced by splitting atoms or bringing them together; of or about weapons that explode by using energy from atoms.

nucleus: n. the center part of an atom or cell.

number: n. a word or sign used to show the order or amount of things.

nutrient: n. a food or substance that makes plants, humans or animals grow.

obey: v. to act as one is ordered to act.

object: v. to show that one does not like or approve; to protest; n. something not alive that can be seen or touched.

observe: v. to watch; to look at carefully; to celebrate or honor something ("They will observe the anniversary of the day she was born.").

occupy: v. to take and hold or to control by force.

ocean: n. the area of salt water that covers almost seventy-five percent of the earth's surface; any of the five main divisions of this water.

off: ad. away; at a distance; condition when something is no longer operating or continuing; not on; not connected.

offensive: n. a military campaign of attack; ad. having to do with attacking.

offer: v. to present or propose; n. the act of presenting or proposing; that which is presented or proposed.

office: n. a room or building where business or work is done; a public position to which one is elected or appointed.

officer: n. a person in the military who commands others; any person who is a member of a police force.

official: n. a person with power in an organization; a representative of an organization or government; ad. of or about an office; approved by the government or someone in power.

of: prep. made from; belonging to; about; connected to; included among.

often: ad. many times.

oil: n. a thick liquid that does not mix with water and that burns easily; a black liquid taken from the ground and used as fuel.

old: ad. not young or new; having lived or existed for many years.

once: ad. one time only.

only: ad. being the single one or ones; no more than ("We have only two dollars.").

on: prep. above and held up by; touching the upper surface of ("The book is on the table."); supported by ("He is on his feet."); about ("The report on the meeting is ready."); at the time of ("He left on Wednesday.").

open: v. to start ("They opened talks."); ad. not closed; not secret.

operate: v. to do work or a job; to cut into the body for medical reasons.

opinion: n. a belief based on one's own ideas and thinking.

oppose: v. to be against; to fight against.

opposite: ad. different as possible; completely different from; exactly the other way ("North is the opposite direction from south.").

oppress: v. to make others suffer; to control by the use of unjust and cruel force or power.

orbit: v. to travel in space around a planet or other object; n. the path or way an object travels in space around another object or planet.

or: conj. giving another of two choices; giving the last of several choices.

order: v. to give a command; to tell someone what to do; n. a command; the correct or normal way things are organized; a peaceful situation in which people obey laws.

organize: v. to put in order; to put together into a system.

organ: n. a part of the body that has a special purpose, such as the heart or brain.

other: ad. different; of another kind; the remaining one or ones of two or more ">("That man is short; the other is tall.").

our: ad. of or belonging to us.

oust: v. to force to leave; to remove by force.

out: ad. away from the inside; opposite of in.

over: conj. above; covering; across, in or on every part of ("all over the world").

overthrow: v. to remove from power; to defeat or end by force.

owe: v. to pay or have to repay (usually money) in return for something received.

own: v. to have or possess for oneself.

pain: n. a hurt or suffering somewhere in the body.

paint: v. to cover with a liquid color; to make a picture with liquid colors; n. a colored liquid used to cover or protect a surface.

pan: n. a metal container used for cooking.

paper: n. a thin, flat material made from plants or cloth often used for writing.

parachute: n. a device that permits a person or thing to fall slowly from an airplane or helicopter to the ground.

parade: n. a group of people and vehicles moving together to celebrate a special event or anniversary.

pardon: v. to forgive for a crime and release from punishment.

parent: n. a father or mother.

parliament: n. a government lawmaking group.

particle: n. a very small piece of matter.

part: n. something less than the whole; not all of something.

party: n. a group of people working together for a political purpose; a group of people or friends gathered together for enjoyment.

passenger: n. a person travelling by airplane, train, boat or car who is not the pilot or driver.

passport: n. a document permitting a person to travel to another country.

pass: v. to go by or move around something; to move along; to cause or permit to go.

past: n. the time gone by; the time before; ad. recent; immediately before; former.

path: n. a narrow way for walking; a way along which something moves.

patient: n. a person being treated by a doctor for a health problem.

pay: v. to give money for work done or for something bought.

peace: n. the condition of freedom from war, fighting or noise; rest; quiet.

people: n. any group of persons; all the persons of a group, race, religion or nation ("the American people").

percent: n. a part of every hundred ("Ten is ten percent of one hundred.").

perfect: ad. complete or correct in every way; completely right or good; without mistakes.

perform: v. to speak, dance or sing in front of others.

period: n. an amount of time within events, restrictions or conditions.

permanent: ad. never changing; lasting for a very long time or for all time.

permit: v. to let; to make possible.

person: n. a man, woman or child.

physical: ad. of the body.

physics: n. the study of motion, matter and energy.

picture: n. something that shows what another thing looks like; an idea or representation of something as seen by the eye; a painting; what is made with a camera.

piece: n. a part of something larger.

pig: n. a farm animal used for its meat.

pilot: n. one who guides or flies an airplane or helicopter.

pipe: n. a long, round piece of material used to move liquid or gas.

place: v. to put something somewhere; n. an area or a part of an area; space where a person or thing is; any room, building, town or country.

planet: n. a large object in space that orbits the sun ("Earth is a planet.").

plant: v. to put into the ground to grow; n. a living growth from the ground which gets its food from air, water and earth.

plan: v. to organize or develop an idea or method of acting or doing something ">("They plan to have a party."); n. an organized or developed idea or method ("The plan will not work.").

plastic: n. a material made from chemicals that can be formed and made into things.

play: v. to have fun; to not work; to take part in a sport; to make music on an instrument; n. a story acted in a theater.

please: v. to make one happy; to give enjoyment.

plenty: n. all that is needed; a large enough amount.

plot: v. to make secret plans; n. a secret plan to do something wrong or illegal.

poem: n. words and their sounds organized in a special way to express emotions.

point: v. to aim one's finger toward; to aim; n. the sharp end of something.

poison: n. a substance that can destroy life or damage health.

police: n. a government agency responsible for guarding the public, keeping order, and making sure people obey the law; members of that agency.

policy: n. an established set of plans or goals used to develop and make decisions in politics, economics or business.

politics: n. the activities of government and of those who are in public office.

pollute: v. to release dangerous or unpleasant substances into the air, soil or water.

poor: n. people with little or no money; ad. lacking money or goods; of bad quality.

popular: ad. liked by many people; generally approved by the public.

population: n. all the people in a place, city or country.

port: n. a city where ships load or unload goods; a place on a coast where ships can be safe from a storm.

position: n. a place; the way of holding the body; the way a thing is set or placed; a job (or level of a job) in an organization.

possess: v. to have; to own; to control or be controlled by.

possible: ad. able to be done; can happen or is expected to happen.

postpone: v. to delay action until a later time.

pour: v. to flow; to cause to flow.

poverty: n. the condition of being poor.

power: n. the ability to control or direct others; control; strength; ruling force; force or energy used to do work ("Water power turns the wheel.").

praise: v. to say good things about; to approve.

pray: v. to make a request to a god or spirit; to praise a god or spirit.

pregnant: ad. carrying a child within the body before it is born; expecting to give birth to a baby.

present: v. to offer for consideration ("We will present our idea to the committee."); n. a gift ("I gave them a present for their anniversary."); now ("The present time is a good time."); ad. to be at a place ("I was present at school yesterday.").

president: n. the chief official of a country that is a republic; the leader of an organization.

pressure: n. the force produced when something is pushed down or against something else.

press: v. to urge strongly; n. newspapers, magazines and other publications.

prevent: v. to keep or stop from going or happening.

price: n. the amount of money for which anything is bought, sold or offered for sale.

prison: n. a place where a person is kept as punishment for a crime.

private: ad. of or about a person or group that is secret; opposite public.

prize: n. something offered or won in a competition; something of value that one must work hard for to get.

probably: ad. a good chance of taking place; a little more than possible.

problem: n. a difficult question or situation with an unknown or unclear answer.

process: n. an operation or series of changes leading to a desired result.

produce: v. to make; to create; to cause something to be; to manufacture.

profession: n. a job that requires special training.

professor: n. a teacher at a college or university.

profit: n. money gained from a business activity after paying all costs of that activity.

program: n. a plan of action; the different events or parts of a meeting or show.

progress: n. movement forward or toward improvement or a goal.

project: n. a planned effort to do something.

propaganda: n. ideas or information used to influence opinions.

property: n. anything owned by someone such as land, buildings or goods.

propose: v. to present or offer for consideration.

protect: v. to guard; to defend; to prevent from being harmed or damaged.

protest: v. to speak against; to object.

prove: v. to show to be true.

provide: v. to give something needed or wanted.

public: ad. of or about all the people in a community or country; opposite private.

publication: n. something that is published such as a book, newspaper or magazine.

publish: v. to make public something that is written; to include something in a book, newspaper or magazine.

pull: v. to use force to move something toward the person or thing using the force; opposite push.

pump: v. to force a gas or liquid up, into or through.

punish: v. to cause pain, suffering or loss for doing something bad or illegal.

purchase: v. to buy with money or with something of equal value; n. that which is bought.

pure: ad. free from anything that is different or that reduces value; clean.

purpose: n. the reason or desired effect for doing something; goal.

push: v. to use force to move something away from the person or thing using the force; opposite pull.

put: v. to place; to set in position.

quality: n. that which something is known to have or be ("An important quality of steel is its strength."); amount of value or excellence ("Their goods are of the highest quality.").

question: v. to ask; to express wonder or disbelief; n. a sentence or word used in asking for information; a problem; an issue to be discussed.

quick: ad. fast.

quiet: ad. with little or no noise; having little or no movement; calm.

race: v. to run; to take part in a competition to decide who or what can move fastest; to take part in a campaign for political office; n. one of the major groups that humans can be divided into because of a common physical similarity, such as skin color.

radar: n. a device that uses radio signals to learn the position or speed of objects that may be too far away to be seen.

radiation: n. waves of energy from something that produces heat or light; energy from a nuclear substance, which can be dangerous.

radio: n. the system of sending and receiving signals or sounds through the air without wires.

raid: v. to make a sudden attack; n. a sudden attack carried out as an act of war, or for the purpose of seizing or stealing something.

railroad: n. a road for trains; a company that operates such a road and its stations and equipment.

rain: n. water falling from the sky.

raise: v. to lift up; to move to a higher position; to cause to grow; to increase.

rare: ad. not common; not usual; not often.

rate: n. speed; a measure of how quickly or how often something happens; the price of any thing or service that is bought or sold.

reach: v. to put a hand toward; to arrive at; to come to.

react: v. to act as a result of or in answer to.

read: v. to look at and understand the meaning of written words or numbers.

ready: ad. prepared; completed; organized; willing.

real: ad. true; truly existing; not false.

realistic: ad. in agreement with the way things are.

reasonable: ad. ready to listen to reasons or ideas; not extreme; ready or willing to compromise.

reason: n. the cause for a belief or act; purpose; something that explains.

rebel: v. to act against a government or power, often with force; to refuse to obey; n. one who opposes or fights against the government of his or her country.

receive: v. to get or accept something given, offered or sent.

recent: ad. a short time ago.

recession: n. a temporary reduction in economic activity, when industries produce less and many workers lose their jobs.

recognize: v. to know or remember something or someone that was known, known about or seen before; to accept another nation as independent and establish diplomatic ties with its government.

record: v. to write something in order to have it for future use; to put sound or pictures in a form that can be kept and heard or seen again; n. a writing that shows proof or facts about something.

recover: v. to get again something that was lost, stolen or taken away ("The police recovered the stolen money."); to return to normal health or normal conditions She is expected to recover from the operation.").

red: ad. having the color like that of blood.

reduce: v. to make less or smaller in number, size or amount; to cut.

reform: v. to make better by changing; to improve; n. a change to a better condition.

refugee: n. a person who has been forced to flee because of unjust treatment, danger or war.

refuse: v. to reject; to not accept, give or do something.

regret: n. a feeling of sadness or sorrow about something that is done or that happens.

reject: v. to refuse to accept, use or believe.

relations: n. understandings or ties between nations; members of the same family; people connected by marriage or family ties.

release: v. to free; to permit to go; to permit to be known or made public.

religion: n. a belief in, or the honoring of, a god or gods.

remains: n. a dead body.

remain: v. to stay in a place after others leave; to stay the same.

remember: v. to think about the past; opposite forget.

remove: v. to take away or take off; to put an end to; to take out of a position or office.

repair: n. work done to fix something.

repeat: v. to say or do again.

report: v. to tell about; to give the results of a study or investigation; n. the story about an event; the results of a study or investigation; a statement in which the facts may not be confirmed.

represent: v. to act in the place of someone else; to substitute for; to serve as an example.

repress: v. to control or to restrict freedoms by force.

request: v. to ask for; n. the act of asking for.

require: v. to need or demand as necessary.

rescue: v. to free from danger or evil.

research: n. a careful study to discover correct information.

resign: v. to leave a position, job or office.

resist: v. to oppose; to fight to prevent.

resolution: n. an official statement of agreement by a group of people, usually reached by voting.

resource: n. anything of value that can be used or sold.

responsible: ad. having a duty or job to do ("He is responsible for preparing the report."); being the cause of ("They were responsible for the accident.").

restrain: v. to keep controlled; to limit action by a person or group.

restrict: v. to limit; to prevent from increasing or becoming larger.

rest: v. to sit, lie down or sleep to regain strength; n. that which remains; the others.

result: v. to happen from a cause; n. that which follows or is produced by a cause; effect.

retire: v. to leave a job or position because one is old or in poor health.

return: v. to go or come back; to bring, give, take or send back.

revolt: v. to protest violently; to fight for a change, especially of government.

rice: n. a food grain.

rich: ad. having much money or goods; having plenty of something.

ride: v. to sit on or in and be carried along; to travel by animal, wheeled vehicle, airplane or boat.

right: n. what a person legally and morally should be able to do or have ("It is their right to vote."); ad. agreeing with the facts; good; correct; opposite wrong; on the side that is toward the east when one is facing north; opposite left.

riot: v. to act with many others in a violent way in a public place; n. a violent action by a large group of people.

rise: v. to go up; to go higher; to increase; to go from a position of sitting or lying to a position of standing.

risk: n. the chance of loss, damage or injury.

river: n. a large amount of water that flows across land into another river, a lake or an ocean.

road: n. a long piece of hard ground built between two places so people can walk, drive or ride easily from one place to the other.

robot: n. a machine that moves and performs tasks.

rob: v. to take money or property secretly or by force; to steal.

rocket: n. a device shaped like a tube that moves through air or space by burning gases and letting them escape from the back or bottom, sometimes used as a weapon.

rock: n. a hard piece of mineral matter.

roll: v. to turn over and over; to move like a ball.

room: n. a separate area within a building with its own walls.

root: n. the part of a plant that is under the ground and takes nutrients from the soil.

rope: n. a long, thick piece of material made from thinner pieces of material, used for tying.

rough: ad. not flat or smooth; having an uneven surface; violent; not made well.

round: ad. having the shape of a ball or circle.

rubber: n. a substance made from the liquid of trees with the same name, or a similar substance made from chemicals.

rub: v. to move something over the surface of another thing.

ruin: v. to damage severely; to destroy.

rule: v. to govern or control; to decide; n. a statement or an order that says how something must be done.

run: v. to move quickly by steps faster than those used for walking.

sabotage: v. to damage or destroy as an act against an organization or nation ("The rebels sabotaged the railroad.").

sacrifice: v. to do without something or to suffer a loss for a belief, idea, goal or another person.

sad: ad. not happy.

safe: ad. away from harm or danger.

sailor: n. a person involved in sailing a boat or ship.

sail: v. to travel by boat or ship.

salt: n. a white substance found in sea water and in the ground, used to affect the taste of food.

same: ad. not different; not changed; like another or others.

sand: n. extremely small pieces of crushed rock found in large amounts in deserts and on coasts.

satellite: n. a small object in space that moves around a larger object; an object placed in orbit around the earth.

satisfy: v. to give or provide what is desired, needed or demanded.

save: v. to make safe; to remove from harm; to keep for future use.

say: v. to speak; to express in words.

school: n. a place for education; a place where people go to learn.

science: n. the study of nature and the actions of natural things, and the knowledge gained about them.

sea: n. a large area of salt water, usually part of an ocean.

search: v. to look for carefully.

season: n. one of the four periods of the year that is based on the earth's position toward the sun (spring, summer, autumn, winter); a period of time based on different weather conditions ("dry season", "rainy season"); a period during the year when something usually happens ("baseball season").

seat: n. a thing to sit on; a place to sit or the right to sit there ("a seat in parliament").

second: ad. the one that comes after the first.

secret: n. something known only to a few and kept from general knowledge; ad. hidden from others; known only to a few.

security: n. freedom from danger or harm; protection; measures necessary to protect a person or place ("Security was increased in the city.").

seed: n. the part of a plant from which new plants grow.

seek: v. to search for ("They are seeking a cure for cancer."); to try to get ("She is seeking election to public office."); to plan to do ("Electric power companies are seeking to reduce their use of coal.").

seem: v. to appear to be ("She seems to be in good health.").

see: v. to know or sense through the eyes; to understand or know.

seize: v. to take quickly by force; to take control of quickly; to arrest.

self: n. all that which makes one person different from others.

sell: v. to give something in exchange for money.

Senate: n. the smaller of the two groups in the governments of some countries, such as in the United States Congress.

send: v. to cause to go; to permit to go; to cause to be carried, taken or directed to or away from a place.

sense: v. to come to know about by feeling, believing or understanding; n. any of the abilities to see, hear, taste, smell or feel.

sentence: v. to declare the punishment for a crime; n. the punishment for a crime.

separate: v. to set or keep people, things or ideas away from or independent from others; ad. not together or connected; different.

series: n. a number of similar things or events that follow one after another in time, position or order.

serious: ad. important; needing careful consideration; dangerous.

serve: v. to work as an official; to be employed by the government; to assist or help.

service: n. an organization or system that provides something for the public ("Schools and roads are services paid for by taxes."); a job that an organization or business can do for money; military organizations such as an army, navy or air force; a religious ceremony.

settle: v. to end (a dispute); to agree about (a problem); to make a home in a new place.

set: v. to put in place or position; to establish a time, price or limit.

several: ad. three or more, but not many.

severe: ad. not gentle; causing much pain, sadness or damage.

sex: n. either the male or female group into which all people and animals are divided because of their actions in producing young; the physical activity by which humans and animals can produce young.

shake: v. to move or cause to move in short, quick movements.

shape: v. to give form to; n. the form of something, especially how it looks.

share: v. to give part of something to another or others; n. a part belonging to, given to or owned by a single person or a group; any one of the equal parts of ownership of a business or company.

sharp: ad. having a thin edge or small point that can cut or hurt; causing hurt or pain.

sheep: n. a farm animal used for its meat and hair.

shell: v. to fire artillery; n. a metal container that is fired from a large gun and explodes when it reaches its target; a hard outside cover.

shelter: v. to protect or give protection to; n. something that gives protection; a place of safety.

she: pro. the girl or woman who is being spoken about.

shine: v. to aim a light; to give bright light; to be bright; to clean to make bright.

ship: v. to transport; n. a large boat.

shock: v. to cause to feel sudden surprise or fear; n. something that greatly affects the mind or emotions; a powerful shake, as from an earthquake.

shoe: n. a covering for the foot.

shoot: v. to cause a gun or other weapon to send out an object designed to kill; to use a gun.

short: ad. lasting only for a small period of time; not long; opposite tall.

should: v. used with another verb (action word) to show responsibility ("We should study."), probability ("The talks should begin soon."), or that something is believed to be a good idea ("Criminals should be punished.").

shout: v. to speak very loudly.

show: v. to make something be seen; to make known; n. a play or story presented in a theater, or broadcast on radio or television, for enjoyment or education; something organized to be seen by the public.

shrink: v. to make or become less in size, weight or value.

sick: ad. suffering physically or mentally with a disease or other problem; not in good health.

sickness: n. the condition of being in bad health.

side: n. the outer surfaces of an object that are not the top or bottom; parts away from the middle; either the right or left half of the body.

signal: v. to send a message by signs; n. an action or movement that sends a message.

sign: v. to write one's name; n. a mark or shape used to mean something; evidence that something exists or will happen; a flat piece of material with writing that gives information.

silence: v. to make quiet; to stop from speaking or making noise; n. a lack of noise or sound.

silver: n. a valued white metal.

similar: ad. like something else but not exactly the same.

simple: ad. easy to understand or do; not difficult or complex.

since: prep. from a time in the past until now ("I have known her since we went to school together.").

single: ad. one only.

sing: v. to make music sounds with the voice.

sink: v. to go down into water or other liquid.

sister: n. a female with the same father or mother as another person.

situation: n. the way things are during a period of time.

sit: v. to rest on the lower part of the body without the support of the legs; to become seated.

size: n. the space occupied by something; how long, wide or high something is.

skeleton: n. all the bones of a human or other animal together in their normal positions.

skill: n. the ability gained from training or experience.

skin: n. the outer covering of humans and most animals.

sky: n. the space above the earth.

slave: n. a person owned or controlled by another.

sleep: v. to rest the body and mind with the eyes closed.

slide: v. to move smoothly over a surface.

slow: v. to reduce the speed of; ad. not fast in moving, talking or other activities.

small: ad. little in size or amount; few in number; not important; opposite large.

smash: v. to break or be broken into small pieces by force; to hit or move with force.

smell: v. to sense through the nose; n. something sensed by the nose ("the smell of food cooking").

smoke: v. to use cigarettes or other tobacco products by burning them and breathing in the smoke; n. that which can be seen rising into the air like a cloud from something burning.

smooth: ad. having a level surface; opposite rough.

snow: n. soft, white pieces of frozen water that fall from the sky, usually in winter or when the air temperature is very cold.

so: ad. in such a way that ("He held the flag so all could see it."); also; too ("She left early, and so did we."); very ("I am so sick."); as a result ("They were sick, so they could not come."); conj. in order that; for the purpose of ("Come early so we can discuss the plans.").

social: ad. of or about people or a group.

soft: ad. not hard; easily shaped; pleasing to touch; not loud.

soil: n. earth in which plants grow.

soldier: n. a person in the army.

solid: ad. having a hard shape with no empty spaces inside; strong; not in the form of a liquid or gas.

solve: v. to find an answer; to settle.

some: ad. of an amount or number or part not stated; not all.

son: n. a person's male child.

soon: ad. not long after the present time; quickly.

sort: n. any group of people or things that are the same or are similar in some way; a kind of something.

sound: n. fast-moving waves of energy that affect the ear and result in hearing; that which is heard.

south: n. the direction to the right of a person facing the rising sun.

space: n. the area outside the earth's atmosphere where the sun, moon, planets and stars are; the area between or inside things.

speak: v. to talk; to say words with the mouth; to express one's thoughts to others and exchange ideas; to give a speech to a group.

special: ad. of a different or unusual kind; not for general use; better or more important than others of the same kind.

speech: n. a talk given to a group of people.

speed: v. to make something go or move faster; n. the rate at which something moves or travels; the rate at which something happens or is done.

spend: v. to give as payment; to use ("He spends much time studying.").

spill: v. to cause or permit liquid to flow out, usually by accident.

spirit: n. the part of a human that is not physical and is connected to thoughts and emotions; the part of a person that is believed to remain alive after death.

split: v. to separate into two or more parts; to divide or break into parts.

sport: n. any game or activity of competition involving physical effort or skill.

spread: v. to become longer or wider; to make or become widely known.

spring: n. the time of the year between winter and summer.

spy: v. to steal or get information secretly; n. one who watches others secretly; a person employed by a government to get secret information about another country.

square: n. a flat shape having four equal sides.

stab: v. to cut or push into or through with a pointed weapon.

stand: v. to move into or be in a position in which only the feet are on a surface; to be in one position or place.

star: n. a mass of gas that usually appears as a small light in the sky at night, but is not a planet; a famous person, usually an actor or singer.

start: v. to begin; to make something begin.

starve: v. to suffer or die from a lack of food.

state: v. to say; to declare; n. a political part of a nation.

station: n. a place of special work or purpose ("a police station"); a place where passengers get on or off trains or buses; a place for radio or television broadcasts.

statue: n. a form of a human, animal or other creature usually made of stone, wood or metal.

stay: v. to continue to be where one is; to remain; to not leave; to live for a time ("They stayed in New York for two years.").

steal: v. to take without permission or paying.

steam: n. the gas that comes from hot water.

steel: n. iron made harder and stronger by mixing it with other substances.

step: v. to move by lifting one foot and placing it in a new position; n. the act of stepping; one of a series of actions designed to reach a goal.

stick: v. to attach something to another thing using a substance that will hold them together; to become fixed in one position so that movement is difficult ("Something is making the door stick."); n. a thin piece of wood.

still: ad. not moving ("The man was standing still."); until the present or a stated time ("Was he still there?"); even so; although ("The job was difficult, but she still wanted to do it.").

stomach: n. breaks down food for the body to use.

stone: n. a small piece of rock.

stop: v. to prevent any more movement or action; to come or bring to an end.

store: v. to keep or put away for future use; n. a place where people buy things.

storm: n. violent weather, including strong winds and rain or snow.

story: n. the telling or writing of an event, either real or imagined.

stove: n. a heating device used for cooking.

straight: ad. continuing in one direction without turns.

strange: ad. unusual; not normal; not known.

street: n. a road in a city, town or village.

stretch: v. to extend for a distance; to pull on to make longer or wider.

strike: v. to hit with force; to stop work as a way to seek better conditions, more pay or to make other demands.

strong: ad. having much power; not easily broken, damaged or destroyed.

structure: n. the way something is built, made or organized; a system that is formed or organized in a special way; a building.

struggle: v. to try with much effort; to fight with; n. a great effort; a fight.

study: v. to make an effort to gain knowledge by using the mind; to examine carefully.

stupid: ad. not able to learn much; not intelligent.

subject: n. the person or thing being discussed, studied or written about.

submarine: n. an underwater ship.

substance: n. the material of which something is made (a solid, liquid or gas).

substitute: v. to put or use in place of another; n. a person or thing put or used in place of another.

subversion: n. an attempt to weaken or destroy a political system or government, usually secretly.

succeed: v. to reach a goal or thing desired; to produce a planned result.

such: ad. of this or that kind; of the same kind as; similar to.

sudden: ad. not expected; without warning; done or carried out quickly or without preparation.

suffer: v. to feel pain in the body or mind; to receive or experience hurt or sadness.

sugar: n. a sweet substance made from liquids taken from plants.

suggest: v. to offer or propose something to think about or consider.

summer: n. the warmest time of the year, between spring and autumn.

sun: n. the huge star in the sky that provides heat and light to earth.

supervise: v. to direct and observe the work of others.

supply: v. to give; to provide; n. the amount of something that can be given or sold to others.

support: v. to carry the weight of; to hold up or in position; to agree with others and help them reach a goal; to approve.

suppose: v. to believe, think or imagine ("I suppose you are right."); to expect ("It is supposed to rain tonight.").

suppress: v. to put down or to keep down by force; to prevent information from being known publicly.

sure: ad. very probable; with good reason to believe; true without question.

surface: n. the outer side or top of something ("The rocket landed on the surface of the moon.").

surplus: n. an amount that is more than is needed; extra; ("That country has a trade surplus. It exports more than it imports.").

surprise: v. to cause a feeling of wonder because something is not expected; n. something not expected; the feeling caused by something not expected.

surrender: v. to give control of oneself or one's property to another or others; to stop fighting and admit defeat.

surround: v. to form a circle around; to be in positions all around someone or something.

survive: v. to remain alive during or after a dangerous situation.

suspect: v. to imagine or believe that a person is guilty of something bad or illegal; n. a person believed to be guilty.

suspend: v. to cause to stop for a period of time.

swallow: v. to take into the stomach through the mouth.

swear in: v. to put an official into office by having him or her promise to carry out the duties of that office ("The chief justice will swear in the president.").

sweet: ad. tasting pleasant, like sugar.

swim: v. to move through water by making motions with the arms and legs.

sympathy: n. a sharing of feelings or emotions with another person, usually feelings of sadness.

system: n. a method of organizing or doing something by following rules or a plan; a group of connected things or parts working together for a common purpose or goal.

take: v. to put a hand or hands around something and hold it, often to move it to another place; to carry something ; to seize; to capture; to begin to be in control ("The president takes office tomorrow.").

talk: v. to express thoughts in spoken words; n. a meeting for discussion.

tall: ad. higher than others; opposite short.

tank: n. a large container for holding liquids; a heavy military vehicle with guns.

target: n. any person or object aimed at or fired at.

taste: v. to sense through the mouth ("The fruit tastes sweet.").

tax: n. the money a person or business must pay to the government so the government can provide services.

teach: v. to show how to do something; to provide knowledge; to cause to understand.

team: n. a group organized for some purpose, often for sports.

tea: n. a drink made from the plant of the same name.

tears: n. the fluid that comes out of the eyes while crying.

tear: v. to pull apart, often by force.

technical: ad. involving machines, processes and materials in industry, transportation and communications; of or about a very special kind of subject or thing ("You need technical knowledge to understand how this system works.").

technology: n. the use of scientific knowledge and methods to produce goods and services.

telephone: n. a device or system for sending sounds, especially the voice, over distances; phone; mobile.

telescope: n. a device for making objects that are far away appear closer and larger.

television: n. a device that receives electronic signals and makes them into pictures and sounds; the system of sending pictures and sounds by electronic signals over a distance so others can see and hear them on a receiver; TV.

tell: v. to give information; to make known by speaking; to order; to command.

temperature: n. the measurement of heat and cold.

temporary: ad. lasting only a short time.

tense: ad. having fear or concern; dangerous; opposite calm.

term: n. a limited period of time during which someone does a job or carries out a responsibility ("He served two terms in Congress."); the conditions of an agreement that have been accepted by those involved in it.

terrible: ad. very bad; causing terror or fear.

territory: n. a large area of land.

terrorist: n. a person who carries out acts of extreme violence as a protest or a way to influence a government.

terror: n. extreme fear; that which causes great fear.

test: v. to attempt to learn or prove what something is like or how it will act by studying or doing ("The scientists will test the new engine soon."); n. an attempt to learn or prove what something is like or how it will act by studying or doing ("The test of the new engine takes place today."); a group of questions or problems used to find out a person's knowledge ("The students did well on the language test.").

than: conj. connecting word used to link things that may be similar, but are not equal ("My sister is taller than I am.").

thank: v. to say that one has a good feeling toward another because that person did something kind ("I want to thank you for helping me.").

that: ad. showing the person, place or thing being spoken about ("That man is a soldier."); pro. the person, place or thing being spoken about ("The building that I saw was very large.").

theater: n. a place where movies are shown or plays are performed.

them: pro. other people being spoken about.

then: ad. at that time; existing; and so.

theory: n. a possible explanation of why something exists or how something happens using experiments or ideas, but which is not yet proven ("Other scientists are debating his theory about the disappearance of dinosaurs.").

the: pro. used in front of a name word to show that it is a person or thing that is known about or is being spoken about.

there: ad. in that place or position; to or toward that place.

these: pro. of or about the people, places or things nearby that have been spoken about already.

they: pro. those ones being spoken about.

thick: ad. having a large distance between two opposite surfaces ("The wall is two meters thick."); having many parts close together ("The forest is very thick."); almost solid, such as a liquid that does not flow easily; opposite thin.

thin: ad. having a small distance between two opposite surfaces; not fat; not wide; opposite thick.

thing: n. any object.

think: v. to produce thoughts; to form ideas in the mind; to consider; to believe.

third: ad. coming after two others.

this: pro. of or about the person, place or thing nearby that has been spoken about already.

threaten: v. to warn that one will do harm or cause damage.

through: prep. in at one end and out at the other; from front to back; from top to bottom; with the help of; by.

throw: v. to cause to go through the air by a movement of the arm.

tie: v. to join or hold together with some material; n. anything that joins or unites; links or connections ("The two nations have strong trade ties.").

time: n. that which is measured in minutes, hours, days and years; a period that can be identified in hours and minutes and is shown on a clock; a period when an event should or will take place.

tired: ad. having less strength because of work or exercise; needing sleep or rest.

today: n. this day.

together: ad. in one group; at the same time or place; in cooperation.

tomorrow: n. the day after today.

tonight: n. this night.

too: ad. also; as well as; more than is necessary.

tool: n. any instrument or device designed to help one do work.

top: n. the upper edge or surface; the highest part; the cover of something.

to: prep. showing the direction of an action; showing the person or place toward which an action is directed; showing a goal or purpose.

torture: v. to cause severe pain; n. the act of causing severe pain in order to harm, to punish or to get information from.

total: n. the complete amount.

touch: v. to put the hand or fingers on.

toward: prep. in the direction of; leading to.

town: n. a center where people live, larger than a village but not as large as a city.

trade: v. to buy and sell or exchange products or services; n. the activity of buying, selling or exchanging products or services.

tradition: n. a ceremony, activity or belief that has existed for a long time.

traffic: n. the movement of people, vehicles or ships along a street, road or waterway.

tragic: ad. extremely sad; terrible.

train: v. to teach or learn how to do something; to prepare for an activity; n. an engine and the cars connected to it that move along a railroad.

transportation: n. the act or business of moving goods or people.

transport: v. to move goods or people from one place to another.

trap: v. to catch or be caught by being tricked; to be unable to move or escape; n. a device used to catch animals.

travel: v. to go from one place to another, usually for a long distance.

treason: n. the act of fighting against one's own country or of helping its enemies.

treasure: n. a large collection of money, jewels or other things of great value.

treatment: n. the act of treating; the use of medicine to try to cure or make better.

treat: v. to deal with; to act toward in a special way; to try to cure.

treaty: n. a written agreement between two or more nations.

tree: n. a very tall plant that is mostly wood, except for its leaves.

trial: n. an examination in a court of a question or dispute to decide if a charge is true.

tribe: n. a group of families ruled by a common chief or leader.

trick: v. to cheat; to fool a person so as to get something or make him or her do something.

trip: n. a movement from one place to another, usually a long distance.

troops: n. a number of soldiers in a large controlled group.

trouble: n. that which causes concern, fear, difficulty or problems.

truce: n. a temporary halt in fighting agreed to by all sides involved.

truck: n. a heavy vehicle used to carry goods.

true: ad. correct; not false.

trust: v. to believe that someone is honest and will not cause harm.

try: v. to make an effort; to take court action against a person to decide if he or she is guilty or innocent of a crime.

tube: n. a long, round structure through which liquids or gases can flow; a long, thin container in which they can be kept.

turn: v. to change direction; to move into a different position; to change color, form or shape.

under: prep. below; below the surface of; less than; as called for by a law, agreement or system ("The river flows under the bridge." "Such action is not permitted under the law.").

understand: v. to know what is meant; to have knowledge of.

unite: v. to join together.

universe: n. all of space, including planets and stars.

university: n. a place of education that usually includes several colleges and research organizations.

unless: conj. except if it happens; on condition that ("I will not go, unless the rain stops.").

until: conj. up to a time; before.

up: ad. to, in or at a higher position or value.

urgent: ad. needing an immediate decision or action.

urge: v. to advise strongly; to make a great effort to get someone to do something.

use: v. to employ for a purpose; to put into action.

us: pro. the form of the word "we" used after a preposition ("He said he would write to us.") or used as an object of a verb ("They saw us yesterday.").

usual: ad. as is normal or common; as is most often done, seen or heard.

valley: n. a long area of land between higher areas of land.

value: n. the quality of being useful, important or desired; the amount of money that could be received if something is sold.

vegetable: n. a plant grown for food.

vehicle: n. anything on or in which a person or thing can travel or be transported, especially anything on wheels; a car or truck.

version: n. the form of something with different details than earlier or later forms.

very: ad. extremely ("He was very late.").

veto: v. to reject or refuse to approve.

vicious: ad. bad; dangerous; showing harm or hate.

victim: n. someone or something that is injured, killed or made to suffer; someone who is tricked.

victory: n. a success in a fight or competition.

village: n. a very small town.

violate: v. to fail to obey or honor; to break (an agreement).

violence: n. the use of force to cause injury, death or damage.

virus: n. a kind of organism that causes disease; (computer) piece of code (software) that typically has a detrimental effect.

visit: v. to go to or come to a place for a short time for friendly or business reasons.

voice: n. the sound made by creatures, especially humans, for speaking.

volcano: n. a hill or mountain around a hole in the earth's surface that can explode, sending hot, melted rock and ash into the air.

vote: v. to choose a candidate in an election; n. a choice or decision expressed by the voice, by hand or by writing.

wages: n. money received for work done.

wait: v. to delay acting; to postpone.

walk: v. to move by putting one foot in front of the other.

wall: n. the side of a room or building formed by wood, stone or other material; a structure sometimes used to separate areas of land.

want: v. to desire; to wish for; to need.

warm: ad. almost hot; having or feeling some heat.

war: n. fighting between nations, or groups in a nation, using weapons.

warn: v. to tell of possible danger; to advise or inform about something bad that may happen.

wash: v. to make clean, usually with water.

waste: v. to spend or use without need or care; to make bad use of; n. a spending of money, time or effort with no value gained or returned; something thrown away as having no value; the liquid and solid substances that result from body processes and are passed out of the body.

watch: v. to look at; to observe closely; to look and wait for.

water: n. the liquid that falls from the sky as rain or is found in lakes, rivers and oceans.

wave: v. to move or cause to move one way and the other, as a flag in the wind; to signal by moving the hand one way and the other; n. a large mass of water that forms and moves on the surface of a lake or ocean.

way: n. a path on land or sea or in the air; how something is done; method.

weak: ad. having little power; easily broken, damaged or destroyed; opposite strong.

wealth: n. a large amount of possessions, money or other things of value.

weapon: n. anything used to cause injury or to kill during an attack, fight or war.

wear: v. to have on the body, as clothes.

weather: n. the condition of the atmosphere resulting from sun, wind, rain, heat or cold.

week: n. a period of time equal to seven days.

weigh: v. to measure how heavy someone or something is.

welcome: v. to express happiness or pleasure when someone arrives or something develops.

well: ad. in a way that is good or pleasing; in good health; n. a hole in the ground where water, gas or oil can be found.

we: pro. two or more people, including the speaker or writer ("He and I will go together, and we will return together.").

west: n. the direction in which the sun goes down.

wet: ad. covered with water or other liquid; not dry.

what: pro. used to ask about something or to ask for information about something ("What is this?"); ad. which or which kind ("He wants to know what you would like to drink.").

wheat: n. a grain used to make bread; the plant that produces the grain.

wheel: n. a round structure that turns around a center.

when: ad. at what time; at any time ("When will she come home?"); conj. during or at the time ("I studied hard when I was in school.").

where: ad., conj. at, to or in what place ("Where is his house?" "The house where he lives is in the old part of the city.").

which: pro. used to ask about what one or what ones of a group of things or people ("Which program do you like best?" "Which students will take the test?").

while: n. a space of time ("Please come to my house for a while."); conj. at or during the same time ("It may not be a good idea to eat while you are running.").

white: ad. having the color like that of milk or snow.

whole: ad. the complete amount; all together; not divided; not cut into pieces.

who: pro. what or which person or persons that ("Who wants to go?"); the person or persons ("They are the ones who want to go.").

why: ad. for what cause or reason ("Why did she do it?"); conj. the reason for which ("I do not know why she did it.").

wide: ad. having a great distance from one side to the other; not limited.

wife: n. a woman who is married.

wild: ad. living and growing in natural conditions and not organized or supervised by humans; angry; uncontrolled.

willing: ad. being ready or having a desire to ("They are willing to talk about the problem.").

will: v. a word used with action words to show future action ("They will hold talks tomorrow.").

wind: n. a strong movement of air.

window: n. an opening in a wall to let in light and air, usually filled with glass.

winter: n. the coldest time of year, between autumn and spring.

win: v. to gain a victory; to defeat another or others in a competition, election or battle.

wire: n. a long, thin piece of metal used to hang objects or to carry electricity or electronic communications from one place to another.

wise: ad. having much knowledge and understanding; able to use knowledge and understanding to make good or correct decisions.

wish: v. to want; to express a desire for.

withdraw: v. to take or move out, away or back; to remove.

without: prep. with no; not having or using; free from; not doing.

with: prep. along or by the side of; together; using ("He fixed it with a tool."); having ("the house with the red door").

woman: n. an adult female human.

wonderful: ad. causing wonder; especially good.

wonder: v. to ask oneself; to question ("She wonders if it is true."); n. a feeling of surprise.

wood: n. the solid material of which trees are made.

word: n. one or more connected sounds that form a single part of a language.

work: v. to use physical or mental effort to make or do something; n. the effort used to make or to do something; that which needs effort; the job one does to earn money.

world: n. the earth; the people who live on the earth.

worry: v. to be concerned; to continue thinking that something, possibly bad, can happen.

worse: ad. more bad than.

worth: n. value measured in money.

wound: v. to injure; to hurt; to cause physical damage to a person or animal; n. an injury to the body of a human or animal in which the skin is usually cut or broken.

wreckage: n. what remains of something severely damaged or destroyed.

wreck: v. to damage greatly; to destroy; n. anything that has been badly damaged or broken.

write: v. to use an instrument to make words appear on a surface, such as paper.

wrong: ad. not correct; bad; not legal; opposite right.

year: n. a period of time equal to twelve months.

yellow: ad. having the color like that of gold or the sun.

yes: ad. used to express agreement or to permit.

yesterday: n. the day before today.

yet: ad. at some time before now ("Have they arrived yet?"); now; at this time ("I cannot tell you about it yet."); conj. however ("The sun was shining, yet it was cold.").

young: ad. in the early years of life; not old.

you: pro. the person or persons being spoken to.

zero: n. the number meaning none or nothing.

zoo: n. a place where animals are kept for the public to look at and study.